New Development in Shigella Infection Treatment Market: Researchers Present a Study that would Contribute towards Developing a Vaccine against the disease Restricting it from Diversifying

Posted On April 16, 2022     

Shigella is the most common bacterial cause of severe diarrhea in children in LMICs (Low- and Middle-Income Countries). However, it is growing increasingly resistant to antibiotics. But the major setback in fighting the disease is that there is no widely accessible licensed Shigella vaccine. One of the critical problems in developing one is the bacteria's high genetic and phenotypic variation.

A new genomics study will aid in developing and deploying vaccinations against Shigella. To characterize the various disease, researchers analyzed whole-genome sequences of 1,246 Shigella samples routinely collected from seven LMICs. This analysis is highly relevant for the Shigella Infection Treatment Market as it would help in vaccine development and implementation and other elements of disease control.

Between 2007 and 2011, the GEMS (Global Enteric Multicenter Study) gathered samples from all four Shigella species (Sonnei, Sonnei flexneri, Sonnei boydii, and Sonnei dysenteriae). The research focuses on pathogen characteristics that hamper current vaccine efforts and regional variances in Shigella diversity and antibiotic resistance determinants.

In terms of genomic diversity, Shigella sonnei causes at least six times more disease than other Shigella species. According to the researchers, existing diversity and adaptative potential among S. flexneri might create vaccine escape variants in less than six months.

Ciprofloxacin is the current WHO-recommended antibiotic for the treatment of shigellosis. The study also indicates how resistance to ciprofloxacin has evolved concurrently.

Many current vaccine techniques focus on the Shigella serotype. However, Shigella has over 50 serotypes, changing rapidly. Thus, resulting in immune escape variations.

Vaccines that target specific subunits of highly conserved proteins are known as specific-subunit vaccines. They may also provide extensive protection and be an appealing alternative and complement to this strategy. However, the extent of antigenic variation in these targets is unknown at this time.

The number and type of diversity in antigens and the speed with which they can change serotypes were investigated in this study. Overall, the findings indicate that protein-based antigens are better stable vaccination candidates for this globally significant disease.

Shigella's disease burden and rising AMR necessitate a rethinking of therapy and management alternatives. Much impetus has been built to meet this problem. Shigella's genomic diversity is a significant barrier to controlling the disease. So, the study undertaken showed how existing immunization efforts might lead to unintended consequences. This emphasizes the importance of taking genetic diversity into account when developing vaccines and treatment approaches for Shigella and other infections.

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