Big Development in Graphene Market: Researchers use Graphene to Produce Particle-Antiparticle Pairs within a Vacuum
Posted On April 16, 2022
A vacuum is thought to be a space devoid of all matter and fundamental particles. However, Nobel Laureate Julian Schwinger predicted 70 years ago that powerful electric or magnetic fields could spontaneously break down the vacuum and form elementary particles. This necessitates cosmic-strength fields, such as those found around magnetars or those generated transitorily during high-energy charged-nuclei collisions. Experimenting on these theoretical predictions has long been an aim of particle physics, and some are currently being planned for high-energy colliders throughout the world.
A recent research experiment has observed the Schwinger effect (an elusive mechanism that generally only occurs in cosmic events). The approach is an exciting development for Graphene Market as researchers employed graphene to create an electron and positron pairs in the same way as Schwinger does. The team created particle-antiparticle pairs from a vacuum by applying strong currents through specially constructed graphene-based devices.
According to the researchers, specially engineered devices (slight constrictions and graphene superlattices) allowed the researchers to create potent electric fields in a simple, table-top configuration. It was noticed that electron and hole pairs (holes are the solid-state counterparts of positrons) formed spontaneously. Moreover, the process' specifics matched theoretical predictions.
The researchers discovered another unexpected high-energy activity with no precedent in particle physics or astrophysics. Their simulated vacuum accelerated electrons to the highest velocity possible in graphene's vacuum, which is one by three hundred of the speed of light. Something seemingly unthinkable happened at this point: electrons appeared to become superluminous. Thus, providing an electric current more significant than permitted by general quantum condensed matter physics principles. This effect was described as the spontaneous production of extra charge carriers (holes). The study team's theoretical account of this process differs significantly from Schwinger's for space.
The electrical properties are frequently studied using small electric fields. This facilitates more accessible analysis and theoretical description.
Researchers decided to increase the strength of electric fields as much as possible while avoiding burning our devices. The response resembled that of superconductors. However, the team soon discovered that the perplexing behavior was not superconductivity but rather related to astrophysics and particle physics. It's fascinating to notice connections between seemingly disparate areas.
The study is especially significant for developing future electronic devices based on two-dimensional quantum materials. This is because it establishes limits on graphene wiring, which was previously recognized for its extraordinary capacity to support ultra-high electric currents.